Couple things relating to Exam 3

First thing: I can’t believe I forgot this, but I forgot to record the Zoom Exam 3 review session yesterday 😦 So I made a quick video that covers the explanations for the Kahoot questions that were the most tricky. There’s nothing new in it – so if you don’t want to watch it, don’t worry! But I wanted to post something for those of you who couldn’t make it to the Zoom session.

Second thing: a question came up during the review session – and I couldn’t recall the answer – so I said I’d post it here 🙂

By the way, it’s okay to say “I don’t know.” I’m not sure if dental students get the same kind of weird vibe that med students get, where you feel like it’s not okay to say you don’t know – it’s the dumbest thing. Because no one can possibly know everything all the time. And also because if you pretend to know something, instead of saying “I don’t know,” then you’re likely to miss out on some important learning.

Anyway. Off the soapbox. Here’s the question:

Q. Do plicae circulares exist in the entire small intestine, or just the jejunum?

A. Plicae circulares exist in the duodenum and the jejunum, but not in the ileum.

Exam 3 information

Exam 3 is scheduled for Thursday, October 29, and you may take it any time between 12:01 am and 11:59 pm on that day. The password for opening the exam is Winter2020. Once you open the exam you’ll have two hours to complete it, and you’ll need to upload it by 11:59 pm on Thursday, October 29, in order to receive a grade.

There will be 46 questions on the exam, and here is the breakdown by topic:

  • Upper AND lower GI: 12
  • Pancreas/Liver/Gallbladder: 6
  • Skin: 6
  • Respiratory: 5
  • Urinary: 7
  • Female repro: 5
  • Male repro: 5

Let me know if you have any questions!

Exam review Zoom meeting cancelled

I apologize for the late notice – but I have an unexpected conflict today with our previously-scheduled Zoom meeting – so I have to cancel that meeting. However, here is the Exam 3 Review Kahoot we were going to go through – so please go through it on your own, if you choose, and let me know if you have any questions at all. I’m happy to set up individual Zoom meetings (or group ones, if there are several people that have the same availability!) to talk about any questions.

Exam 3 moved to Thursday, 10/29!

To help give you some breathing room after your Oral Anatomy midterm on 10/26, we moved our last exam (Exam 3) from Tuesday 10/27 to Thursday 10/29. Yay! You can find this change on our Lectures page.

Exam 3 will be set up pretty much the same as our other exams. It will be open from 12:01 to 11:59 on 10/29, it will be proctored, and you’ll have 2 hours to take it once you start. I’ll post more details as we get closer; let me know if you have any questions.

Diagram of what happens to female germ cells

Here’s an interactive drawing I made that shows what happens to female germ cells over time. I think it’s kind of helpful to see the numbers (and stages) of the germ cells mapped out by age – it gives you a visual sense of what happens throughout life.

I can’t post the drawing on our website because of wordpress limitations – but I was able to post it on my Pathology Student website (so when you click on the link, you’ll wind up on that website).


Female repro slides 21 – 33

When I lectured on female reproductive histology last year, I inadvertently left out slides 21-33! So I put together a summary of the important points on those slides.

Please let me know if you have any questions. This stuff can be a little tricky until you get the hang of it – so don’t be shy, ask away. I love questions.

Slides 21-23 cover ovulation. At around day 12 of the menstrual cycle, estrogen (produced by the developing ovarian follicles) reaches its peak. This triggers release of massive amounts of LH (the “LH surge“) from the anterior pituitary. LH causes the Graafian follicle to move to the surface of the ovary and release its little oocyte into the world. This oocyte release is called ovulation, and it happens around the midpoint of the cycle (about day 14).

Slides 24-28 cover the corpus luteum. After it releases its oocyte, the Graafian follicle is called the corpus luteum. Under the influence of LH (we’re still in the LH surge), its granulosa and theca interna cells turn into granulosa lutein and theca lutein cells, respectively – and both cell types make estrogen and progesterone. The progesterone is particularly important because it stimulates growth of uterine glands, so that if the oocyte is fertilized, it has a nice cushy uterine lining to land on.

The corpus luteum hangs around for the remainder of the menstrual cycle, and if no fertilization occurs, it involutes (shrinks) and becomes a tiny white scar, called the corpus albicans. If fertilization does occur, the corpus luteum sticks around for the first trimester of the pregnancy, and then hangs it up and becomes the corpus albicans.

Slides 29-31 cover the endometrium. The uterus is composed of two layers:

  • Myometrium: smooth muscle, makes up the bulk of the uterus
  • Endometrium: glandular tissue, forms the lining of the uterus

The endometrial glands are divided into two zones:

  • Functionalis (at the top): glands in this region change during the menstrual cycle (they become longer and more tortuous during the second half of the cycle), and if no fertilization occurs, they become necrotic and are sloughed off during menstruation.
  • Basalis (at the bottom): glands in this region don’t change during the menstrual cycle; their job is to replenish the functionalis after menstruation.

Respiratory tree drawings

Here’s the drawing I referred to in our lecture on the respiratory system. It shows how the wall of the respiratory passageways changes as you go from bronchi to alveoli. There are three versions, so you can use it fully labeled, partially labeled, or unlabeled, however it suits you best. Let me know if you find it useful – if so, I’ll make more 🙂


Labeled with passageways only:

Fully labeled:



Exam 2 scores are finalized!

The scores for exam 2 are final, and are now posted in Canvas. You did really well – the mean was 92% (or 44 out of 48 points). I gave everyone credit for the question that was a blend of two questions. I apologize for that error – it slipped right under my radar.

If you want to see the questions you got wrong, your exam 2 results are now available in your exam portal (here’s a post about how to view your exam results in case you’ve forgotten).

Let me know if you have any questions!